Ranked Choice Voting in States

FairVote tracks bills in state legislatures that move electoral reforms like ranked choice voting forward. First, show your support to help bring ranked choice voting to cities and states across the country by signing our petition. Then learn more and get more involved.

Spotlight: Maine

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The following list and map summarize bills that would expand the use of ranked choice voting in the United States, organized by state.

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California

  • SB 212: Authorizes ranked choice voting for local elections and establishes procedures for adopting and using RCV.

Connecticut

  • HB 05404: Establishes a task force charged with studying the implementation of ranked choice voting in federal, state, or municipal elections.

District of Columbia

  • B23-0491: Requires the use of ranked choice voting in primary and general elections for many D.C. officials, including the mayor, attorney general, and council members, starting in 2022.

Hawaii

  • SB 2006 & HB 2121: Establishes ranked choice voting for special federal elections and special elections for vacant county council seats.
  • SB 450 & HB 210: Mandates ranked choice voting for all partisan primary, special, and nonpartisan general elections held in Hawaii on or after 1/1/2020.
  • SB 680: Requires ranked choice voting for all partisan primary, special, and nonpartisan general elections held in Hawaii on or after 1/1/2020.
  • SB 956: Establishes ranked choice voting for all partisan primary, special, and nonpartisan general elections held in Hawaii on or after 1/1/2020.
  • HB 1580: Requires ranked choice voting for all elections starting July 2020.
  • SB 427: Mandates ranked choice voting for special federal and county council elections starting in July 2030.
  • HB 718: Requires ranked choice voting for special federal and county council elections.
  • HB 626: Establishes ranked choice voting for special elections for U.S. House vacancies.
  • HB 2128: Requires ranked choice voting for special federal elections, special elections for vacant Hawaii senate and house seats, and special elections for vacant county council seats.

Illinois

  • SB 2267HB 5585: Establishes ranked choice voting for elections for members of General Assembly, Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, Comptroller, and Treasurer.

Indiana

  • SB 0370: Allows ranked choice voting for municipal and county elections.

Maine

  • LD 2126Passed - Provides one-time funding for June 2020 state primary and ongoing funding for software, tabulators, and courier services for ranked choice voting in the June 2020 primary and the November 2020 general election.
  • LD 1477: Repeals ranked choice voting laws unless voters amend Maine's Constitution.
  • LD 1663Passed - Clarifies which offices ranked choice voting should be used for.
  • LD 114: Restricts ranked choice voting to open primary elections for U.S. Senators, U.S. Representatives, State Senators, and State Representatives.
  • LD 1083Passed - Requires ranked choice voting in primaries and general elections for president.
  • LD 1196: Amends Maine's Constitution to require a majority vote in elections for Governor, State Senator, and State Representative.
  • LD 1454: Requires voters in each congressional district to decide whether their district will use plurality voting or ranked choice voting.
  • LD 1213: Repeals ranked choice voting.
  • LD 1477: Amends Maine's Constitution to authorize the Legislature or the citizens of Maine, through initiative, to decide what election methods to use, including ranked choice voting, for elections for Governor, State Senators, and State Representatives.

Maryland

  • SB 89: Requires the State Board to certify only voting systems that can accommodate ranked choice voting.

Massachusetts

  • H 4301: Establishes ranked choice voting for all state and federal offices *began as a state initiative petition.
  • S 414: Mandates ranked choice voting for all elections for state and federal offices besides the presidency.
  • H 719: Establishes ranked choice voting for all state and federal elections that elect one person, besides presidential electors, and all primaries besides caucuses.
  • S 420, S 406 & H 635: Allows cities and towns to use ranked choice voting for local elections.
  • S 2544: Order authorizing committee on Election Laws to make an investigation and study of certain election laws issues, including ranked choice voting.
  • S 2229: Authorizes adoption of ranked choice voting for mayoral and councilor elections in Easthampton if approved by voters through ballot questions.
  • S 2331: Passed - Allows adoption of ranked choice voting for mayoral and councilor elections in Easthampton if approved by voters through ballot questions.
  • S 2544: Orders committee on election laws investigate multiple election reform proposals, including ranked choice voting.

Michigan

  • HB 5282: Allows cities to use ranked choice voting in city official elections.
  • HB 5281: Allows cities to use ranked choice voting for city officials if no other office is on the ballot.

Minnesota

  • HF 983: Allows home rule charter or statutory cities, counties, townships, and school districts to adopt ranked choice voting for all local office elections and provides for tabulation, reporting, recounts, purchases, and testing.
  • SF 2424SF 3380HF 1603HF 1935 & HF 3365: Authorizes home rule charter or statutory cities, counties, townships, and school districts to adopt ranked choice voting for general, special, or partisan primary elections for local offices.
  • SF 3385: Prohibits cities, counties, townships, and school districts from adopting ranked choice voting.

Missouri

  • HB 1436: Requires instant runoff voting for all general and primary elections for local offices.

New Hampshire

  • HB 728: Establishes ranked choice voting for federal and state offices and presidential primaries.

New Jersey

  • S 1820 & A 1200: Establishes ranked-choice voting procedures for Governor, State Senate, and State General Assembly elections, as well as U.S. Senate, U.S. House, and presidential primary and general elections.

New York

  • S 02717 & A 08073: Allows local governments to use ranked choice voting for mayor, borough president, town supervisor, county executive, county legislator, city council, town council, public advocate, comptroller, board of education, and village trustee in 2022 and 2023.
  • S 02517 & A 07387: Allows State Board of Elections to conduct a pilot program for 2022-2023 local governments to use ranked choice voting in their elections. Up to ten local governments will be selected in both 2022 and 2023.
  • S 01447 & A 08370: Requires that elections for municipal office in the city of New York use an instant run-off or ranked choice voting system.
  • S 07528: Encourages participation in elective franchise by all eligible voters to maximum extent and ensures that eligible voters who are members of racial, ethnic, and language-minority groups have an equal opportunity to participate in the political processes in New York, including ranked choice voting. 
  • A 09771: Establishes ranked choice voting for all statewide elections and allows local governments to conduct elections via ranked choice voting.
  • A 05261: Repeals the current system for run-off primary elections in the city of New York and replaces it with an instant run-off voting system.
  • S 00796 & A 01420: Establishes instant run-off elections in the city of New York for any city wide elections for the office of mayor, public advocate or comptroller.

North Carolina

  • H 994: Establishes ranked choice voting for any State or federal office, with the exception of the president. First past the post open primary elections will yield four candidates for ranked choice general elections.

Pennsylvania

  • SB 894: Allows municipalities to use ranked choice voting in municipal elections with three or more candidates.
  • HB 2042: Establishes ranked choice voting for all elected offices in the Commonwealth with the exception of President and Vice President of the U.S., along with any judicial office.

Rhode Island

  • H 7913: Calls for the Secretary of State to evaluate the feasibility and provide recommendations for necessary regulations / statutes / legislation to implement ranked choice voting, and report findings to House by January 5th, 2021.

Vermont

  • H 0702: Allows municipalities to vote on whether they want to use ranked choice voting for their elections. 
  • S 0174: Establishes ranked choice voting in all primary elections for U.S. Senator, U.S. Representative, and State office and in general elections for U.S. Senator and U.S. Representative.
  • JRS 021: Establishes ranked choice voting in Joint Assembly elections.
  • H 0444: Establishes ranked choice voting in all primary elections except for that of President and in general elections for the offices of U.S. Senator and U.S. Representative.

Virginia

  • HB 1103: Passed - Allows local electoral boards, the general registrar, and city council members to use ranked choice voting. Vests the State Board powers to oversee such system.
  • HB 360: Establishes ranked choice voting for any State or federal office, with the exception of the president. First past the post open primary elections will yield four candidates for ranked choice general elections.
  • HB 506: Passed - Enables counties operating under the county manager plan of government to use ranked choice voting for county board of supervisors elections.

Washington

  • SB 6569SB 5708 & HB 1722: Allows counties, cities, school districts, firedistricts, and port districts to conduct their elections using ranked choice voting.

West Virginia

  • SB 826: Establishes ranked choice voting for elections for WV Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals.

Updated as of 7/24/2020

 

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