Where Instant Runoff Is Used
IRV is used on the municipal, state, and national level in governments around the world, as well as by non-governmental organizations and corporations.
In the United States
State and local governments using instant runoff voting as of May 2012
- Arkansas (only overseas voters in runoffs): Adopted in 2005 and first used 2006
- Berkeley, California: Adopted in 2004 and first used 2010 (for mayor, city council and other city offices)
- Hendersonville, North Carolina Adopted and used as part of a pilot program in 2007, 2009 and 2011 (mayor and multi-seat variation for city council)
- Louisiana (only overseas and out-of-state military voters in federal and state runoffs): Adopted and used since the 1990s
- Minneapolis, Minnesota: Adopted in 2006 and first used in 2009 (for mayor, city council and other city offices)
- North Carolina (for judicial vacancy elections only); Adopted 2006 and used in statewide special election and three county-level elections in 2010
- Oakland, California: Adopted in 2006 and first used in 2010 (for mayor, city council and other city offices)
- Portland, Maine: Adopted in 2010 and used in 2011 (for electing mayor only)
- San Francisco, California: Adopted in 2002 and first used in 2004 (for mayor, city attorney, Board of Supervisors and most other city offices)
- San Leandro, California: Adopted as option in 2000 charter amendment and first used in 2010 (for mayor and city council)
- South Carolina (only for overseas voters in federal and state runoffs): Adopted and first used in 2006
- St. Paul, Minnesota: Adopted in 2009 and first used in 2011 (mayor and city council)
- Springfield, Illinois (for overseas voters only): Adopted in 2007 and first used in 2011
- Takoma Park, Maryland: Adopted in 2006 and first used in 2007; (for mayor and city council)
- Telluride, Colorado: Adopted in 2008 and first used in 2011 (for mayoral elections)
- Memphis, TN (adopted 2008; scheduled for 2013 for electing city council and other offices)
Advisory, Option or Contingent Measure in the United States
- Ferndale, Michigan (adopted in 2004)
- Santa Clara County, California (adopted in 1998)
- Santa Fe, New Mexico (adopted in 2008)
- Sarasota, Florida (adopted in 2007)
- Vancouver, Washington (adopted in 1999)
*Ann Arbor (MI), Aspen (CO), Burlington (VT), Cary (NC), New York (NY), Pierce County (WA) and Yonkers (NY) are among cities that have used instant runoff voting since 1900.
**Cambridge (MA) uses a similar ranked choice voting system for its city council elections, but it is the choice voting method of proportional voting where each of the nine winners needs to earn a little more than 10% of the vote. Davis (CA) passed an advisory measure in 2006 in favor of this system.
In International Governments
- Australia, to elect its House of Representaives since 1919 and to elect most state and territory lower houses.
- Bosnia, for certain sub-national elections, since 2000.
- Bougainville, first used IRV for presidential elections in December 2008.
Fiji, since 1997.
Papua New Guinea, since 2001.
The Republic of Ireland, to elect its president since 1922.
- London, to elect its mayor since 2000 (with voters limited to two rankings) Also, several other UK cities use IRV to elect their mayors.
- Wellington, New Zealand, to elect its mayor since 2003. Other New Zealand cities use it as well.
Malta, to elect its president since 1921.
Sri Lanka, to elect its president since 1978.
India, indirectly for president and to fill vacancies.
Conservative Party in Canada for leadership elections.
- Progressive Conservative Party of Alberta, Canada for leadership elections.
- Liberal Party of New Zealand (Optional Preferential Voting)
- Labour Party in the UK for leadership elections.
- Hong Kong's Legislative Council has 4 functional constituencies that use a preferential elimination system.
In American Organizations and Corporations
In American Colleges and Universities
Interest in fair elections systems for student elections around the country has been gaining momentum, with about five dozen colleges and universities using IRV as of 2011 for single-winner offices like student body president..