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Top Four for Washington and California

The Top Two System in Action: Washington State 2008-2012: This report analyzes the results of Top Two in Washington State over three election cycles, demonstrating the lack of voter choice and competition that has resulted from the use of that system. It also simulates the results under a Top Four system, demonstrating that it retains the nonpartisan preliminary election of Top Two while ensuring enhanced competition and expanded choice for voters.

Fixing Top Two in California: This policy perspective takes a critical look at California's 2012 elections under Top Two with its new independent redistricting commission. It finds that Top Two makes mild improvements in some respects, but with tremendous costs to voters and the democratic process, including unrepresentative voter pools in the preliminary election and significant issues with vote splitting among similar candidates. It demonstrates that a Top Four approach would ameliorate all of Top Two's major issues in California. It further recommends amendments to promote the association rights of political parties.