- Ranked Choice Voting / Instant Runoff
- Resources and Links
Resources and Links
Resources and Links
RCV Toolkit for Local Activists
FairVote is developing a toolkit for local activists to help them bring RCV to their state, county, city, campus, or organization. It includes resources for community assessment, for education, for outreach, and other resources.
Our toolkit for activists: RCV in Your Community
Our toolkit for RCV on campus: RCV on Campus
Our brochure: Ranked Choice Voting: Vote-Count-Elect
Online RCV Election Tools
OpaVote allows you to run secure, reliable organizational elections using either single-winner or multi-winner RCV. Check out an example of their embeddable ranked choice voting widget here.
Create your own RCV poll at Civinomics for RCV elections big or small.
RCV and Civility Study
In 2013, FairVote received a generous grant from the Democracy Fund to conduct a comprehensive two-year study of the impact of ranked choice voting (RCV) on campaign cooperation and civility in local elections in the U.S. Research conducted by the Eagleton Poll at Rutgers University and a core team of four academics led by Professor Caroline Tolbert of the University of Iowa found that voters in cities with RCV were more satisfied with candidate conduct and perceived less candidate criticism and negativity. A review of newspaper coverage also demonstrated more positive coverage in RCV cities than non-RCV cities in 2013. In RCV city, RCV was supported by a majority of voters who expressed an opinion.
The Ranked Choice Voting and Civility Project.
2015 report on RCV in cities.
2014 Eagleton Poll RCV Survey Results.
Testimony and Presentations
FairVote staff and supporters have provided written and oral testimony in support of RCV in a variety of contexts.
Rob Richie: letter of support for Hawaii bill adopting RCV for vacancy elections
Rob Richie: brief to the Canadian Special Committee on Electoral Reform providing information on RCV in the U.S. context
FairVote: testimony on Potomac Compact for Fair Representation and other redistricting bills in Maryland
FairVote, Common Cause, and the League of Women Voters of Montgomery County: testimony on Maryland local options bill for Montgomery County vacancy elections
Drew Spencer: testimony on RCV in Massachusetts
Drew Spencer and Grace Ramsey: testimony on RCV for school board vacancy elections in Montgomery County, Maryland
Dania Korkor's 2015 presentation to Road Scholar on RCV for Congress
Rob Richie: testimony to the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration on RCV ballots for military and overseas voters
Drew Spencer: testimony on multi-winner RCV in Montgomery County, Maryland
FairVote: testimony on RCV in multi-winner districts in Virginia
2013 or earlier
Devin McCarthy and Drew Spencer's 2013 testimony on RCV in multi-winner districts in Maryland
Rob Richie's 2010 presentation on RCV in Portland, Maine
Rob Richie's 2009 testimony on RCV in New York State
FairVote has worked with experienced attorneys and legislative drafters to ensure that its model legislation meets best practices.
Model state statute or city ordinance (single and multi-seat RCV)
Model state statute or city ordinance (single-seat RCV only)
Model Constitutional amendment or city charter amendment
Legislation from Other Jurisdictions
Maine: text of citizen initiative for ranked choice voting
Berkeley (CA) charter provision
Oakland (CA) charter provision
San Francisco (CA) charter provision
San Leandro (CA) city ordinance
Minneapolis (MN) charter provision
Minneapolis (MN) city ordinance
St. Paul (MN) city ordinance
Portland (ME) charter provision
Takoma Park (MD) city ordinance
Santa Fe (NM) city charter (Sec. 4.06)
Ballot usability is an important aspect of any successful election. FairVote has developed a sample ranked choice voting ballot based on best practices in usability. We also highlight approaches taken by actual jurisdictions in designing ranked ballots to highlight key decisions that went into our sample ballot.
FairVote's Sample RCV Ballot
Ballots from Other Jurisdictions
Cambridge, MA: 2001 School Committee
South Carolina: 2006 Republican Primary Overseas Ballot
Portland, ME: 2015 Mayor
Portland, ME: 2011 Mayor
This was Portland's first mayoral election and it attracted a large number of candidates; voters were permitted to rank all candidates.
Minneapolis, MN: 2009 Mayor and City Council
Minneapolis was limited in 2009 to three rankings and listing each candidate's name three times due to older voting equipment.
Assumption Parish, LA: 2001 Judicial Election Overseas Ballot
Louisiana in 2001 hand counted RCV ballots for military and overseas voters, so voters ranked by writing numerals rather than filling in ovals.
Wicklow, Ireland: 2002 Dáil Éireann (Irish legislature)
Ireland hand-counts ballots in its multi-winner RCV elections, so voters ranked candidates by writing numerals rather than filling in ovals.
FairVote supports election administrators in their goal to make RCV elections as easy as possible for voters and poll-workers and ensuring that everyone involved can be confident in the security and accuracy of the results. See our page on RCV and election administration for even more resources.
Resources for Administrators
Ranked Voting Guidelines, by Chris Jerdonek, Ph.D. (2007)
Report on RCV and Election Integrity
Sample RCV ballot
RCV ballot counting options
Sample RFP language (short)
Sample RFP language (long)
Voter Education Materials
Ranked Choice Voting & Under-Represented Communities (trifold brochure)
RCV 101 handout